荷兰国际管家学院(中国)  - Butlerschool

Interesting facts  趣闻

On this page, we have gathered some interesting facts about butling and the private service profession. We also try to shed some light on the history of butling. The word butler derives from the old French bouteillier, and identified the cup-bearer or the one in charge of the bottles in large households. Bottle and the French equivalent both come from the medieval Latin buticula, a diminutive of buttis, a cask, which is also the origin of the English word "butt", given to large wooden container for liquid. The beer cellar in medieval times would have contained butts or wooden casks, not glass bottles.  So the buttery originally had nothing to do with butter but was the place for storing the butts. Only later was the word extended to mean somewhere that provisions in general were stored, perhaps because people mistakenly made that association.

在本页,我们专门搜集了一些关于管家服务与专业私人服务的逸闻趣事。我们希望能重新点亮管家式服务的历史。Bulter(管家)一词起源于古老的法语词bouteillier(葡萄酒瓶),指司酒者(把酒装瓶的人)或者大户人家里专门负责把酒装瓶的人。Bottle French都是来自于中世纪拉丁文buticula,作为buttis的别称,cask(木桶)也是英语词butt(大酒桶)的前身,意思是大型木质液体容器。中世纪装酒用的是大酒桶或者木桶子,不是玻璃瓶子。因此buttery(酒类藏室)原意并不是butter(盛酒器)的意思,而是指存放酒类的地方。只是到后来该词的意思延伸指存放食物的地方,这也许是因为人们误解则不小心把两者联系起来。

Chief Cup-Bearer 首席侍酒师

Through a complicated process that had to do with the loss of gentlemen servants and changes in social organization, the butler slowly rose to be in charge not only of the buttery, but also of the ewery (where the napkins and basins for washing and shaving were kept) and the pantry (where the bread, butter, cheese and other basic provisions were stored), and later still he took over the cellerer's duties of looking after the wine. This eventually became one of his principal duties. By the middle of the nineteenth century, the role of the butler reached its full flowering as head of the male domestic servants, in larger households sometimes the butler was given a whole suite of rooms dedicated to his various functions.

由于时间的变革,绅士们的仆人数量不断流失以及社会体制的改变,司酒者(即后来的管家)的职责范围慢慢的从酒窖扩大到水洗房(清洗和放置毛巾,水盆的地方)以及食品储藏室(放置面包,黄油,奶酪等食物的地方),之后甚至还直接接管负责葡萄酒酒窖的工作。这些工作也逐渐成为司酒者最主要的职责。直到19世纪中期,司酒者的工作范围更是延伸到花圃,并且管理主人家里其他所有仆人,在有的大户人家里,主人还会专门为其准备房间居住,方便其在家里开展种类繁多的工作。

The biblical book of Genesis contains a role quite like the modern butlers. The early Hebrew Joseph who interpreted a dream of the Pharaoh (shaqah) (literally "to give to drink"), which is most often translated into English as "chief butler" or "chief cup-bearer". Eventually the European butler emerged as a middle-ranking member of the servants of a great house, in charge of the wine and liquor stored in the buttery.

《圣经》的创世纪篇中有提到一个类似于现代管家的角色,一位叫做约瑟夫的古希伯来人为法老解梦,梦中的Phoaraoh Shaqah(意为“倒酒者”),这个词在英文中经常被译为“总管家”或者“总司酒者”。最后,在欧洲,管家慢慢的也出现在一些中产阶级家庭中,负责酒类储藏。

The number of butlers worldwide 全球管家数量

The International Guild of Professional Butlers estimates that there are yet again a few million professional butlers in the world today. Note that the term "butler" is defined differently by different people. According to The Guild there has been a steady increase of butlers the past 30 years with a surge during the past 10 years. The Guild has some 10.000 active members from around the world. More than 35% of these members are from the USA.

具国际职业管家协会统计,目前又新增数百万名专业管家。注意,“管家”这一称谓鉴于不同的人有不同的定义。根据协会的统计,近10年管家增长人数相当于过去30年内的管家人数的总和。协会活跃会员来自世界各地,总数超过10000人。有超过35%的会员来自美国。

The duties of a modern butler  现代管家职责

In the early twentieth century, social change meant the butler almost vanished as a breed. Toward the end of the twentieth century, the butler has been reinvented as a kind of Swiss-Army-knife, all-purpose household manager, often the sole permanent servant. The primary duty of a butler is to oversee the household staff, many times at more than one residence.This requires a knowledge of high social etiquette and protocol in order to receive guests and supervise the reception of visitors.The modern butler may double as house manager, personal assistant, valet, chef, body guard, and a number of other positions in a household.Other responsibilities include things like organizing duties and schedules of domestic staff, scheduling and overseeing household maintenance, organizing parties and events, performing light housekeeping duties and booking hotels, restaurants and theatres.

20世纪初,因为整个社会体制的转变,司酒者仿佛彻底消失了。直至20世纪末,又在重新被启用,并作为家用管理人,管理家里所有大小事务。通常家用管理人是家里唯一一个长期服务的仆人。管家的首要职责是监管家里的所有员工,很多时候需要同时管理主人其他住所。为了有效的管理和接待主人的客人,要求管家必须具备非常全面的外交礼节,严格执行接待标准。当今的管家通常身兼数职,像房屋管理人,私人助理,贴身男仆,厨师,保镖等。其他职责还包括指定人员工作时间表,员工职责范围,设备设施定期维修时间表,安排各种派对,做一些简单的家政,协助主人预定酒店住宿,餐厅,剧院等。

 

The butler could also be taking care of the household accounting and creating household budgets, maintaining the wardrobe and clothing inventory for the gentleman, packing and preparing for the gentleman for travel, assisting with maintaining household security, staff hiring and firing and staff training. The butler is knowledgeable about wines and spirits and oversees the wine cellar and liquor inventory. Thus, the modern butler needs strong communication, organizational and management skills, and an ability to multi-task.

管家还需要管理家庭账务和制作家庭预算,当主人出行时,帮助主人整理所需要的出行用品等。协助管理房屋及人员安全,聘请或解雇员工,培训员工。还需掌握一定的红酒和烈酒等酒类知识,监管葡萄酒和烈酒储存处。综上所述,作为一名合格的现代管家,需要有极强的沟通,组织和管理能力等综合能力。

The salary range of a modern butler 当代管家薪资范畴

Salary is usually based on anumber of factors such as the job location, the duties, responsibilities and hours included in the job description, the amount of experience and formal training of the candidate, and possibly a few other factors as well.

薪资通常根据工作地点,职责范畴,工作时长等而定,管家本身的职业经验,是否受过专业培训也是衡量薪资的标准。

A butler usually earns a salary between $50.000 and $150.000 annually, plus benefits. We realize that the salary indication is very broad but it is what it is. A butler can be a live-in or live-out employee. Room and board can be considered part of the salary package, including a car, mobile telephone, 4 weeks annual leave, once a year airline ticket home, etc. Note that most butlers work an average of 60 hours per week, or more.

管家一般的年薪在5万美元到15万美元之间,外加其他福利。雇佣者可以根据需要选择让聘用的管家入住到自己家或让其自行安排住宿。包吃住通常是包含在薪资福利内,包括车,手机,每年4周的年假,一年一次回家探访的机票等。注意,大多数管家的工作时长为每周60个小时,甚至更长。

The best butlers 顶级管家

Because of the many British TV series and movies featuring butlers, many people believe that butling is a "British thing". This is an unfortunate myth, just like "British style butling". This notion comes from a rather overwhelming number of books, TV series and movies, all featuring a British butler. Due to the phenomenal success of Downton Abbey, British domestic service is yet again a trending topic.

由于许多英剧和英国电影内经常出现管家的身影,许多就误以为管家是“英式事物”。这是一个不幸的误解,就像“英式管家服务”一样。这个概念来自于数量众多的书籍、电视剧和电影,他们所描述的家庭全部都配备了一个英式管家。由于唐顿庄园的惊人的成功,英国国内的家政服务再一次成为了热门话题。

The French invented the butler and the Americans invented the modern butler. Most butlers are employed in the USA and in the Middle East. Most successful butlers are Swiss. The best butler school in the world is located in The Netherlands. The best service in the world can be found in the Far East.

法国人创造了管家,美国人则创造了现代管家。大多数管家受雇佣美国以及中东的雇主。但管家这个职业在瑞士是最成功的。世界上最好的管家学院位于在荷兰。世界上最好的服务被认为是在遥远的东方。

Often we are asked which nationality is best for butling. This is difficult to say, but based on our experience with recruitment and comments from clients from around the world we assist with their recruitment needs, and based on the same information from The Guild, we can say that the most successful butlers are from Switzerland, with butlers from the USA and France making up the second and third place.

我们经常被问到,到底哪个民族的管家服务才是最好的。这个问题很难回答,但基于我们多年的招聘经验,从世界各国客户手中得到的反馈,与国际职业管家协会的统计数据相结合,我们可以说最成功的管家来自瑞士,来自美国和法国的管家则排在第二第三的位置。

The current job market 当今的就业市场

Beginning in the early 1920s, employment in domestic service occupations began a sharp overall decline in western European countries, and even more markedly in the United States. Even so, by World War II there were still around 30,000 butlers employed in Britain alone. Following varied shifts and changes accompanying accelerated globalization beginning in the late 1980s, overall global demand for butlers since the turn of the millennium has risen dramatically. The most immediate cause for this rise is that the number of millionaires and billionaires has increased in recent years, and such people are finding that they desire assistance in managing their households. The number of wealthy in China has particularly increased, creating in that country a high demand for professional butlers. In 2004, BuckinghamPalace announced for the first time that it was actively recruiting females for the position. Which brings us to "gender and butling".

早在20世纪20年代初,欧洲西部国家的家庭服务从业人员数量全面下降,在美国更为明显。尽管如此,二战时期,仅英国就有约近3万名管家。随着全球性的加速发展,对管家的需求量呈现有史以来最戏剧性的上升。导致此现象最直接的原因是百万或千万富翁数量的增长,他们非常渴望有人可以协助打理家庭事务。尤其在中国富裕的人越来越多,对管家的需求也越来越多,他们更需要接受过管家培训的职业管家。2004年,白金汉宫第一次正式宣布招聘女性管家,这就和我们接下来要说的“管家服务与性别”有关了。

Gender and butling 管家服务与性别

Butlers have traditionally been male, and this remains the norm. Probably the first mention of a female butler is in the 1892 book Interludes being Two Essays, a Story, and Some Verses, by Horace Smith. In it Smith quotes a certain Sydney Smith who had apparently run into lean times: "A man servant was too expensive, so I caught up a little garden girl, made like a milestone, christened her Bunch, put a napkin in her hand, and made her my butler. The girls taught her to read, Mrs. Sydney to wait, and I undertook her morals. Bunch became the best butler in the country."Today, female butlers are sometimes preferred, especially for work within Middle and Far Eastern families where it may be culturally problematic for males to work closely with females in a household. Western female celebrities may also prefer a female butler, as may households where the wife is driving the decision to hire a butler.

管家历来以男性为主。第一次提到女性管家应该是在1892年出版的,诗人Horace Smith短篇散文诗集《Interludes being Two Essays, a Story, and Some Verses》里。书里其中一篇故事主人公名叫Sydney Smith,主人公当时正经历经济不景气的时期,当中有一段是这样讲的:聘请男性管家费用变的昂贵起来,因此我从我的花园里找来一个女园丁,把她的外形稍作修整,束起她的头发,为她起名Bunch,把餐巾放到她的手腕上,从此这位园丁女孩就成了我的管家。女孩们教她读书写字,我与太太教她道德礼仪。就这样,Bunch成为了当时全国最优秀的管家。而今天,有的时候会更倾向于女管家,特别是在为中东或远东国家的家庭里工作时,考虑到当地的人文习俗,会比较介意男女一起工作。在西方的名人圈里,举办聚会时,如果是女主人决定的话,也会更倾向于选则女管家。

 

In ancient times, the roles leading to butling were reserved for those confined within heredity-based class structures. In the medieval era butling became an opportunity for social advancement, even more so during Victorian times. Butling today has frequently taken over many of the roles formerly reserved for lower ranking domestic servants. At the same time it has become a potentially lucrative career option.

 

在古代,管家的工作总是在同一个家庭中代代相传。直到中世纪,甚至维多利亚时期,管家的挑选方式才发生了改变,由低级别的佣人中选拔出来。同一时期,管家已成为一个有潜力、回报高的职业。

The Victorian Era (1839 - 1901)   维多利亚时期(1839--1901

The Victorian era corresponds with the reign of Queen Victoria in England from 1839 to 1901. The period is beloved for its attention to high morals, modesty and proper decorum, as inspired by the Queen and her husband, Prince Albert. The Victorian era was also an optimistic time in which scientific and industrial invention thrived. Developments in printing produced a proliferation of Victorian scrap art, cards, and magazines.

维多利亚统治英国的维多利亚时期。女皇和她的丈夫阿尔伯特亲王深受国民爱戴,整个国家以道德高尚,谦逊礼貌而著称。维多利亚时代也是科学和工业发明巅峰时期。印刷术的进步也促进了文学艺术的空前繁荣。

The importance placed on civic conscience and social responsibility engendered notable developments toward gender and racial equality, such as the legal abolishment of slavery in Britain and in America. In addition, humanitarian and religious organizations such as the Salvation Army reflected the Victorian concern for the poor and needy of the period. Poverty was overwhelming.

重视国民道德意识,强调社会责任,形成了性别和种族平等的进步观念,美国废除奴隶制正是这一观念的体现。此外,当时贫富差距明显,贫困问题非常严峻,救世军等人道主义组织也反应了维多利亚女皇统治时期对穷人的关爱。

 

In 1901, when the British population was 38 million and every middle-class home had at least one servant, there were 1.7 million women and 140,000 men in domestic service. Even a modestly prosperous household could expect to retain the services of a general domestic servant, and mostly these were young single women. In fact, right up until the start of the First World War, domestic service was the largest single occupation for women. However, it was fading in popularity by 1891. The hours worked were very long, the work was arduous and often lonely and it did not provide the freedom which was available to factory and shop workers. Large households could expect to employ dozens of servants.

1901年时,当时英国人口约3800万,几乎每个中产阶级家里中至少有一个仆人,国内有接近170万女性和14万男性从事服务工作。就连小康家庭也都会维持一个仆人为家里服务,这一职业通常以单身年轻女性为主。这种现象一直持续到第一次世界大战之后。1891年开始有了变化。由于工作时间长,任务繁重,孤独,相比在工厂或商店工作的人更是缺乏自由。许多富裕的大家族开始聘请更多的仆人分担工作。

The butler in early America 早期的美国管家

From the beginning of slavery in America, in the early 1600s, African Americans were also put to work as domestic servants inside plantations. Some eventually became butlers. Gary Puckrein, a social historian, argues that those used in particularly affluent homes authentically internalized the sorts of "refined" norms and personal attributes that would reflect highly upon the social stature of their masters or mistresses.

17世纪初,也是美国奴隶制早期,非裔美国人通常在白人私家种植园工作。也有的经过长时间工作,取得主人信任最终成为管家的。社会历史学家Gary Puckrein先生称:特别是在一些富裕家庭,内部经过“精炼”的家规和个人特征明显反应出家中男女主人的社会地位。

One of the first books written and published through a commercial U.S. publisher by an African American was by a butler named Robert Roberts. The book, The House Servant's Directory, first published in 1827, is essentially a manual for butlers and waiters, and is called by Puckrein "the most remarkable book by an African American in antebellum America". The book generated such interest that a second edition was published in 1828, and a third in 1843. A modern reprint is available.

Robert Roberts,是一位非裔美国人,也是一名职业管家,他所写的《House Servant's Directory》是第一本由美国出版商出版的有关管家工作指南的书籍。1827年第一次出版,Puckrein声称:在美国站前时期,作为非裔美国人写出这样的佳作,绝对是非凡的成就。此书引起社会上极大的反响并且于1828年第二次出版,第三次出版是在1843年。现代版本也已问世。

Alonzo Fields, Chief Butler for the White House

白宫首席管家阿伦佐·菲尔兹

When the President says he wants cocktails and dinner at 8, he gets cocktails and dinner at 8, even if the kitchen staff has to be tracked down by the WashingtonD.C. police.President Truman had been enjoying a relaxing family weekend in Independence, Missouri when he first learned that North Korea had invaded South Korea. This knowledge prompted him to fly back to Washington on June 25, 1950 and order a dinner meeting.The problem was the kitchen staff had taken the afternoon off because the First Family was out of town. Alonzo Fields, chief butler for the White House, was called at 4 p.m. and told to prepare cocktails and dinner for the President and his fourteen senior advisors by 8 p.m. Fields planned the menu on the drive over to the Blair House (the President's residence at the time while the White House was being renovated) after mentally surveying the on-hand ingredients. He also enlisted the help of the WashingtonD.C. police to find two of the White House chefs.

当美国总统说想在晚上8点时用膳外加一杯鸡尾酒,哪怕厨房员工会被华盛顿警察跟踪,他一定会在晚上8点准时享用晚餐和鸡尾酒。杜鲁门总统正在密苏里州与家人享受天伦之乐时传来了朝鲜战争发动的消息,他便立马决定飞回华盛顿与他的最高参议员会面,并提出在8点用膳的要求。当时是1950625号。问题是,因为总统一家不在白宫,因此当天下午所有厨房员工都休息。Alonzo Fields,白宫的总管家,在下午4点时才被告知要为总统和其他另外14名参议员准备晚上8点的晚餐和鸡尾酒。Fields先生立即开车到布莱尔宾馆(当时白宫在翻修,是总统的临时住所),在目测手上仅有的材料后准备了菜单。华盛顿警察也还为他找来两名白宫的厨师帮忙。

Eugene Allen served eight US Presidents

为八位美国总统服务过的尤金·艾伦

For more than three decades Eugene Allen, a black man unknown to the headlines, worked in the White House as butler. During some of those years, harsh segregation laws lay upon the land. Mr. Allen trekked home every night, where his wife, Helene, kept him out of her kitchen. At the White House, he worked closer to the dirty dishes than the large desk in the Oval Office. Mrs. Allen didn't care; she just beamed with pride. President Truman called him Gene, while President Ford liked to talk golf with him.He saw eight presidential administrations come and go, often working six days a week. "I never missed a day of work," he says. His is a story from the back pages of history. A figure in the tiniest of print; the man in the kitchen. He was there while America's racial history was being remade: the Little Rock school crisis, the 1963 March on Washington, the cities burning, the civil rights bills, the assassinations.

作为一个不为人所知的黑人,Eugene Allen却在白宫担任管家超过30年。当中有些年为美国本土实施种族隔离制度的时期。Allen先生每天辛苦工作之后都要长途跋涉回到自己家里,他的妻子Helene从来不让他靠近家里的厨房。在白宫,他的工作总是清洗最脏的盘子多过总统办公室里的椭圆形桌子。Allen先生的太太对此并不在意,只怪当时社会现象如此。杜鲁门总统亲切的叫他Gene,福特总统喜欢和他一起聊高尔夫。他经历了八位总统,一周工作6天,Allen先生说:“我从来没有请过一天假。”他是历史背后的故事,被记录在微小的角落里。他也经历了美国种族重塑时期,Little Rock学校事件,19633月华盛顿大游行,火烧城市,公民权利法案,各种暗杀事件。

 

When he started at the White House in 1952, he couldn't even use the public restrooms when he ventured back to his native Virginia. "We had never had anything," Mr. Allen, 89, recalled of black America at the time. "I was always hoping things would get better."Before he landed his job at the White House, Mr. Allen worked as a waiter at a resort in Virginia, and then at a country club in Washington. In 1952, a lady told Mr. Allen of a job opening in the White House. "I wasn't even looking for a job," Allen says. "I was happy where I was, but she told me to go on over there and meet with a guy by the name of Alonzo Fields. Forest Whitaker plays Eugene Allen in the movie The Butler (released in 2013). A remarkable movie indeed.

当他1952年开始在白宫工作时,有一次冒险回老家维吉尼亚州,在路上他甚至不被允许使用公共厕所。“我们从来都没有拥有过什么”,当时已89岁的Allen先生回忆美国种族歧视时期:“我只是一直希望情况会好转起来。”在到白宫工作之前,Allen先生在维吉尼亚州的一个度假村做过服务生,之后到华盛顿的一个乡村俱乐部。1952 年,一位女士告诉Allen先生白宫正在请人,“我当时并没有找工作的打算。” Allen先生说,“我对当时工作的地方很满意。但是她告诉我,我应该去看看,和一位叫Alonzo Fields的人谈谈。”著名黑人演员Forest Whitaker在电影《白宫管家》里扮演Alonzo Fields。这绝对是一部经典电影。

The large house hierarchy 家佣等级

Readers of historical novels are familiar with some of the servants that large houses employed to do all the work required to keep the place running smoothly. Some had an army of outdoor servants (gardeners, gamekeepers, and grooms) and an equally large army of indoor servants. The number and kinds of servants varied depending on the social status of the employer and the size of the estate.

喜欢看历史小说的读者,一定不会对小说故事里大户人家的仆人的工作内容感到陌生。一般像这类大户人家会分户内和户外仆人两种,户外的有:园丁,猎场看守,马夫;户内的则有与户外相等数量的佣人。主人的社会地位和财力的不同,雇佣的仆人数量和种类也有所不同。

 

Male servants ranked above female servants and non-liveried servants. Those who did not wear uniforms, ranked above those servants who did. The highest ranking male servant (who in some ways was more a professional employee than a true servant), was the Land Steward. He was often the son of a minister or businessman. Some Land Stewards were attorneys and had their own homes and own businesses on the side. The Land Steward was the manager of the estate. He hired and fired workers, settled tenant complaints, saw to the harvesting of crops, managed the timber, collected the rents and kept all the financial records. Very wealthy men with more than one estate had several Land Stewards.

男性仆人的等级比女性仆人和非入住型仆人的高。不穿制服的仆人比穿制服的仆人等级高。最高级别的男性仆人(在某些方面通常比真正的仆人更专业)要数土地管理人。他们通常出生于官宦之家或商人家庭。有的土地管理人曾经做过律师并且有自己的房产和生意。他们是庄园管理人,负责人事管理,平息佃户抱怨,验收收割的农作物,管理木材,收取租金,和记录所有财政数据。非常富有的人通常有许多土地,也会有相应的土地管理人为其打理。

 

A few, very wealthy homes employed a House Steward. The House Steward was an administrative position. He was in charge of the keys. He and he alone had access to the pantries where food was stored, to the wine cellars where the wine was stored, and to the storerooms. The people who needed to access these areas had to ask his permission. He would let them in, then lock the door after they were finished. He was responsible for making sure repairs were carried out, that seamstresses were hired to make or repair the clothing and that there were enough laundresses.

可是只有非常少数的富有家族才会雇用住宅管理人。住宅管理人是内务工作。他掌管所有的钥匙,有权利自由出入食物储藏室,酒窖和杂物室。其他人则需要经过他的允许才能进入。其他人进入后,完成工作,则由他亲自锁门。还要负责确保所有替换物的搬运,招用足够的女裁缝修补所有衣物等。

 

The next highest ranking male house servant was the Butler. The butler's duties varied depending on the size of the house. He was in charge of the wine cellar and in the days before refrigeration, that was a delicate task. He was in charge of the silver and gold plate, china, and crystal. He supervised the cleaning of this valuable silver and gold and guarded it against thieves. As time passed, the position of the butler gained more and more prestige until he became the top servant in Victorian times, in charge of the men and women under servants. While the Butler did not wear livery, he did alter his clothing slightly while on duty - he wore a black tie rather than a white one for instance. It would not do to mistake the butler for a gentleman.

其次雇佣率最多的男性仆人就是管家。家族大小的不同,管家的职责范围也会不同。管家需要负责冷藏酒窖里的红酒,这是一项非常细致的工作;他不仅要负责打理家里所有银器和金器,陶瓷,水晶等器皿,还要保证这些值钱的物品不被偷走。随着时间的推移,管家这一职业也越来越有声望,到维多利亚时期,管家已经被列为最高等级的仆人,管理家里其他所有佣人。那时管家还没有特定的制服,不过在工作时他们会在着装上做些小小改动,比如戴黑色的领带。这样别人就不会把他们与绅士混淆。

 

Highest ranking male house servant, next to the butler, was the valet. He cared for his employer's clothing, shined his shoes and boots, did the hairdressing and barbering and made sure the gentleman looked good. A valet had to be well-dressed himself, but was not to outshine his employer. When the gentleman went shopping or traveling, the valet went along since there were men who literally could not dress or undress themselves without assistance.

管家之后则是贴身男仆。贴身男仆需要打理主人的服装,鞋履,甚至为主人美容美发,总之确保并维持主人的仪表。贴身男仆一定要着装得体,但是不能喧宾夺主。当主人逛街或旅游时,贴身男仆要跟随着一起,因为有时主人穿的衣服或鞋子很紧,穿上或脱下的时候就一定要有人从旁协助。

 

The highest ranking indoor liveried servant was the footman. Footmen did many jobs around the house, both indoors and outside. Inside, he laid the table, waited at table, served tea, answered the door and assisted the butler. Outside, he rode on the carriage, opened doors, served as an escort when a lady paid calls, and carried torches to deter thieves when the lady and gentleman went out at night. The footman carried letters to and from, and special footmen called "running footmen" ran in front of or beside a carriage. These running footmen had mostly died out by the time of the Regency, but in their prime, they were colorful characters, both literally and figuratively. They often wore very bright and luxurious livery and some noblemen would organize footraces between their running footmen. The qualifications for being a footman were good looks and a good physique. Their livery was knee breeches, often plush ones with silk stockings (footmen had to have good legs) and coats of satin and velvet with starched shirts.

贴身男仆之后则是随从。随从的工作范围就是整个房子的范围,包括户外。户内的工作内容:布置餐桌,服侍主人用餐,服侍茶点,应门,协助管家。户外为:骑马车,开门,陪伴女主人出行并随时候命,当主人夜晚外出时,要举着火把保证主人安全。很多时候随从还要跟着马车跑为主人传送信件,所以也称“移动型随从”。到英国摄政时期,这类移动型随从就消失了,不过在他们的鼎盛时期时,可谓是名符其实多姿多彩的人物。他们的制服颜色鲜艳,质地高档。有时候贵族们还组织他们赛跑。成为随从要符合外貌姣好,体格健壮两个条件。随从的服装通常为长绒质地的齐膝短裤,外加丝质长袜(随从的腿型一定要好看),天鹅绒缎面外套以及挺拔的衬衫。

 

A page or "hall-boy" was a young boy who was sort of an apprentice footman.He performed odd jobs and tasks and was put into livery to stand around and look good when the lady chose to entertain. Sometimes the page was a young black boy who was put into an especially fancy livery and treated almost like an ornament.

侍从或者“大厅男孩”通常都是非常年轻的男孩,某种程度上来讲算是随从的学徒。他们的工作内容都很奇怪,有时候会打扮的很漂亮只为了女士们进门时可以看到漂亮的物体。甚至有时会让年轻的黑人穿上非常特别的服饰,任由主人或客人们当成装饰品看待。

 

Women servants did not rank as high as men and were not paid as much even though their work was often harder. While a footman carried letters, a chambermaid often had to climb flights of stairs with loads of coal for the fire or cans of hot water for the bath. The highest ranking woman servant was the housekeeper.She kept the keys to all the storage closets and supervised the maids and cook. She served as the butler's right hand helper.She kept books and household accounts, and ordered food and other supplies.She very much ran the practical side of the house.

女仆的等级不如男仆的等级高,收入与繁重的工作也不相符。当随从手拿信件来回传送时,侍女则在家里为了生火给主人取暖,或者烧热水给主人洗澡背着木炭爬上爬下。最高等级的女仆是女管家。她手握家里所有储藏室的钥匙,监管所有女佣和厨师;是管家的副手。女管家工作范围侧重于日常生活所需,例如管理主人的日常家庭开销,记录和保存账本;订购粮食和其他物资。

 

The next highest woman servant was the personal maid, or Lady's maid. She dressed and undressed the lady of the house, cleaned, pressed and mended clothing and did the lady's hair. In the Victorian age, when clothing was very heavy and elaborate (and buttoned and laced up the back) a women could literally not get dressed or undressed without assistance. Personal maids also looked after the jewelry and served as a companion and confidante. It was very much "the thing" to have a personal maid who was French, but if a lady could not find a French maid, a personal maid who could speak a few French phrases was almost as good.

地位仅次于女管家的是贴身侍女。她们服侍女主人宽衣和穿衣,清洗和整理女主人的衣服,为女主人梳理头发。维多利亚时期的女性服装重量很重,穿戴又复杂(背后有许多纽扣和蕾丝绑带),如果没有人帮助,基本上无法自己一个人完成。贴身侍女还要负责看管女主人名贵的珠宝首饰,因为与主人相处的时间长,对主人的习惯品性非常了解,更多的时候会像朋友一样陪伴左右。在当时,如果拥有一个法国贴身侍女,会被认为是件非常不得了的事,但是就算没有的话,则退而求其次找一个能讲法语的贴身侍女。

 

The cook was considered to be of better quality if she had trained with a male chef. Not many people were wealthy enough to afford a male chef, so they searched for female cooks who had trained with men. The cook was the dictator of the kitchen. The cook had many kitchen helpers to assist her in the massive amounts of cooking that had to be done. There were always scullery maids (the lowest of the female servants) whose job it was to clean the pots and pans.These poor girls spent their days with their hands in hot water and harsh washing soda. After a large party, there could be hundreds of greasy pots and pans to clean before the girls could go to bed.

当时普遍都认同由男厨师培训的女厨师。毕竟不是每一个家庭都足够富裕雇佣男厨,因此会雇用受男厨培训过的女厨代替。在厨房里,一切由大厨说了算。厨房里会有很多打下手的员工协助做饭。肯定少不了安排洗碗工(地位最低的仆人),这些可怜的女工每晚到睡觉前都要不停的清洗上百个沾满油渍的锅碗瓢盆。

 

There were several other kinds of specialized maids, chambermaids, parlor maids and maids-of-all-work. These young women were the ones who swept, dusted, polished, cleaned, washed, fetched and carried from early morning till late at night.The schedule of the week for maids has them working from 6:30 am till 10:00 pm with one half-day off a week. They had to do all the cleaning and polishing with none of the labor-saving devices we take for granted today. There was no such thing as prepared polish in a tin for instance. Furniture polish had to be made from linseed oil, turpentine and beeswax.

还有其中种类的女佣女仆,客厅女佣,杂役女佣。这些年轻的女孩们每天从早到晚的打扫灰尘,抛光家具,清洗衣物,搬搬抬抬。工作时间从早上6点半到晚上10点,一周只有半天休息。现代家具护理一般都会使用亚麻仁油,松油脂和蜂蜡等,只是当时并没有更省力省物的清理方式。

 

Carpets had to be brushed by hand or taken outside and beaten. Lamps had to be cleaned and filled and fires had to kept lit and tended. This necessitated maids lugging large amounts of coal up flights of stairs to all the fireplaces, and with no central heating, a large estate could have many, many fireplaces. The sheer amount of work involved in a maid's job is difficult to imagine. Maids wore two kinds of clothing. In the mornings when most of the heavy work was done, they wore cotton print dresses and heavy aprons. Later in the afternoon, they changed into black dresses with ruffled aprons and caps with streamers.

地毯必须用手刷或者是拿到外面去把灰尘拍掉。灯具不仅要保持清洁,还要随时加满灯油点亮。因为那时没有中央暖炉,如果是面积大的房子往往会有很多处壁炉,因此女佣们要来回搬运大量的煤炭加到每一处壁炉里。女佣的工作量大到无法想象。女佣的服装有两种。当完成早上繁重的工作后,她们会穿上棉质的裙子,要上系着厚重的围裙。下午的时候会换上黑色的裙子,系上褶皱花边的围裙,头戴飘带的棉质帽子。

 

The era of large estates with many servants died out after World War I. For a long time, a job as a servant was the only one a respectable young woman could get, and after jobs in offices and factories became available, few young women or men wanted to spend long hours working for little money and little chance to have a life of their own. More job opportunities, smaller houses and more labor saving devices finally put an end to the huge numbers of servants who used to work in stately homes.

第一次世界大战后,贵族富商的衰落,对仆人的需求也大大减少。很长一段时间里,只有女性才能获得这份工作。并且随着办公室和工厂的职位对外开放,几乎没有人愿意从事这种时间长,薪酬低的工作了,他们更愿意选择自己喜欢的工作。更多就业机会的出现,家庭形式的改变从而节省大量的劳动力,最终导致家佣时代的终结。

Fictional butlers 小说里的管家

The real-life modern butler attempts to be discreet and unobtrusive, friendly but not familiar, keenly anticipative of the needs of his or her employer, and graceful and precise in execution of duty. The butler in fiction, by contrast, is typically larger-than-life and has become a traditional plot device in various literature, film and theatre. In potboilers and melodramas, butlers provide comic relief with wry comments, or clues about the perpetrators of various crimes, and are represented as being at least as intelligent, and often more so, than their "betters".

现实生活中的通常给人的感觉正经谨慎,友好又不失礼节,非常了解主人的生活习性及想法,永远可以完美的完成各种任务。各种类型的电影,话剧中虚构的管家形象往往比现实中的管家形象要夸大许多。

Butlers figure so prominently in period pieces and whodunits that the catch phrase "The butler did it!" has become commonplace. Regardless of the genre in which they are cast, butlers in fiction almost invariably follow the "British butler model" and are given an appropriate-sounding surname. The best-known fictional manservant, and the prototype of the quintessential British butler, Reginald Jeeves, the iconic creation of author P.G. Wodehouse, is not a butler at all, but a "gentleman's gentleman" or valet.

在一些低成本的情景剧里,管家总是以一副滑稽的形象出现,说出各种啼笑皆非的台词;或者是在犯罪电影中,又常是一副很精明的样子,经常为主人提出关键线索。在许多侦探小说里,我们也经常看到这样一句话:是管家干的!可是不管他们在剧中扮演什么形象,编剧总选用典型的英式管家形象,而且起一定会起一个典型的管家名字。虚构的英式管家比起管家本身要出名的多。作者P.G. Wodehouse笔下的Reginald Jeeves就是一个典型贴身男仆的代表。

 

Not all fictional butlers portray the "butler stereotype", however. Alan Bates, in his role as the butler in the film GosfordPark, was coached in brooding detail by Arthur Inch, a longtime real-life butler. Mr. Stevens, the butler played by Anthony Hopkins in the film Remains of the Day, was also acted with remarkable realism. A female butler, Sarah Stevens, is the principle character in Linda Howard's 2002 Dying to Please, a murder/romance novel. Howard gives detailed and generally accurate descriptions of butling.

不是所有虚构的管家都是一副“刻板”的形象。电影Gosford Park(中译为:高斯福庄园)剧中的管家Alan Bates,在出演之前专门由职业管家Arthur Inch特别训练,从管家生活中揣摩,赋予角色更真实的色彩。Anthony HopkinsRemains of the Day(中译为:在告别友情天)中扮演的管家Stevens,精湛的表演呈现出真实生活中管家的形象。2002年出版的由作家Linda Howard编写的浪漫谋杀小说Dying to Please (中译为:温柔的死去),作者通过主角女管家Sarah Stevens详细精准的描绘了管家式服务。

 

Probably the best-known fictional butlers are Alfred from the Batman comic and films, Hudson of Upstairs, Downstairs television series, and Crichton from J.M. Barrie's The Admirable Crichton. Other characters include Mr. Belvedere from the Belvedere television series, Lurch, from The Addams Family television series, Beach, from the Wodehouse series about BlandingsCastle, Benson from the series Soap and Benson, Geoffrey from the television series The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air, and Niles from the television series The Nanny.

蝙蝠侠漫画和电影系列里的管家Alfred;电视剧Upstairs, Downstairs(楼上楼下)里的Hudson;以及J.M的小说The Admirable Crichton 里的Crichton应该是虚构小说中比较有名气的几个。还有少为人知的,来自小说Belvedere 里的管家Belvedere先生,该小说也有被改编成电影和电视剧;还有根据漫画Charles Addams' New Yorker改编的电视剧The Addams Family(亚当一家)里的Lurch;还有Wodehouse系列中Blandings城堡里的管家Beach;连续剧Soap and BensonBenson。电视喜剧The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air(新鲜王子妙事多)中的Geoffrey,以及电视连续剧The Nanny(天才保姆)中的Niles

Dinner for one (The 90th Birthday) (Der 90.Geburtstag)

电影《一人晚餐》(90Geburtstag的一人晚餐)

This little short comedy is an annual tradition in many families around the world on New Year's Eve. People never get tired of it. The comedy is universal. Plot, pacing, acting and characters in this version are all top-notch, starring comedians Freddie Frinton and May Warden. German Television station NorddeutscherRundfunk (NDR) recorded a performance of the piece in 1963, in its original English language. This short comical play went on to become the most frequently repeated TV program ever.

这是全世界都会在新年除夕夜看的一出喜剧短片。喜剧不分国界,人们对此片也乐此不疲。这部片子无论是故事情节,节奏还是主要喜剧演员Freddie Frinton May Warden的表演都是一流的。德国电视台北德广播电视台(NDR)于1963年为此片配录了德语,原片为英语,每年年关时都会播放,并且成为重播率最高的电视节目。

 

The sketch presents the 90th birthday of elderly upper-class Englishwoman Miss Sophie, who hosts a dinner every year for her closest friends MrPommeroy, MrWinterbottom, Sir Toby, and Admiral von Schneider to celebrate the occasion. The problem is that given Miss Sophie's considerable age, she has outlived all of her friends, and so her equally aged manservant James makes his way around the table, impersonating each of the guests in turn. James finds himself raising (and emptying) his glass four times per course.

故事大概讲述的是一位上流社会的英国老太太Sophie女士,她每年都会邀请好朋友Pommeroy先生,Winterbottom先生,Toby爵士和海军上将Schneider一起参加她的生日派对,当然90岁这次也不例外。可问题是,Sophie女士已经年事已高,她所有的朋友都已经离世了,只剩下与她同年纪的男仆James先生,因此这次生日SophieJames充当客人。但是他发现每上一道菜都要举一次杯,并且还是空酒杯。

 

Miss Sophie decides on appropriate drinks to accompany the menu of the evening, consisting of Mulligatawny soup (Miss Sophie orders sherry), haddock (with white wine), chicken (with champagne), and fruit for dessert (with port). The drinking by James takes its toll, increasingly noticeable in James' growing difficulty in pouring the drinks, telling wine glasses from vases of flowers, and refraining from bursting into song. Even before the alcohol begins to exert its influence, he has trouble avoiding the head of a tiger skin laying on the floor between the dinner table and the buffet.

Sophie女士精心搭配了自己的生日晚餐:咖喱肉汤搭配雪莉酒,黑线鳕鱼搭配白葡萄酒,鸡肉搭配香槟,最后水果甜点搭配波特酒。酒精已经开始对James起作用了,他已经无法正常倒酒,也分不清楚自己的拿的是酒杯还是水晶花瓶,还开始哼起歌来。不过在酒精反应之前,他都已经很难躲开递上的虎头地毯了。

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By Royal Appointment